Friday, May 18, 2012

Make Your Own Organic Fertilizer

 Bokashi Fertilizer

               BOKASHI is a Japanese word meaning fermented organic matter with EM technology. EM-1 has 3 principal microorganisms such as Lactic Acid Bacteria,  Yeast Phototropic (photosynthetic) microorganisms.
             Lactic Acid Bacteria inhibits the growth of harmful microorganisms due to its low pH. Yeast is the fermentation starter and help producing bioactive substances such as hormones and enzymes. Phototropic (photosynthetic) microorganisms are the one that uses solar energy to metabolize organic and inorganic substances. Combining these 3plus other microorganisms converts organic matter through the process of fermentation which increases the efficacy of organic matter as fertilizer. Bokashi  is used to hasten decomposition of kitchen waste and garden waste to recondition garden/ farm soil and provide nutrients for plants. This is also good as organic fertilizer.



     Below are the ingredients you may use in bokashi. You may choose one ingredients among this or make your own formula depending on the available materials within your area. Just remember, rice bran, EM-1 or EMAS and molasses are your constant materials. Corn bran or wheat bran could be a substitute for rice bran.



There are two ways to make bokashi. Anaerobic bokashi and Aerobic bokashi. 



    Anaerobic bokashi means air is not allowed during fermentation and has longer fermentation process than aerobic bokashi. In this type, you need a tightly sealed containers like drum. This type of bokashi, if dried and stored properly could be keep for one year. 
       Bokashi feed additive is fermented using this method. 

    Aerobic bokashi allows air and careful control of moisture and temperature during fermentation . This type of bokashi mainly use in agriculture and could be keep up to 6 months.


Dry Materials:


Formula A        

Processed chicken manure or any animal manure     40 kg                                                                 
Rice Bran  D3                                30 kg                
                                
Rice Hull                                        30 kg               Formula B
Rice Bran D3                                  50 kg
Copra Meal                                    10 kg
Carbonized rice hull                       20 kg*
Coco coir dust                                20 kg

Formula C                                                        
Shredded Rice straw                     100 kg               
Rice Bran                                        10 kg                                      
Dried Chicken Manure                     5 Kg                
                                                                         
  
 Formula D                                                        
Processed Animal Manure              30 kg 
Plant leaves                                    10 kg 
Carbonized Rice hull (Not Ash)       60 kg
Coco peat                                       40 kg
Rice Bran-D3                                 10 kg






Liquid Materials for Bokashi:
♦ EM Activated Solution (EMAS) 30 to 40 liters for every 100 kg dry materials or
♦ Dilute the following if EMAS is not yet available:
      EM-1 Concentrate         1 liter 

      Molasses                       1 liter
      Non-chlorinated water   48 liters

How to make EM Activated Solution.

1. Prepare EM Activated Solution (EMAS) by diluting 1 liter Molasses and 1 liter EM-1 to
28 liters non-chlorinated water. Ferment it for 7 days in room temperature away from direct sunlight. During this fermentation period allow gas to escape by opening the cover every 2-3 days, then tighten it again. It should have sweet sour smell.



Start to make your own ANAEROBIC BOKASHI


1. Mix all the dried materials well.
2. Dilute 1 liter of molasses to non- chlorinated water and add EM-1. Mix well or use Pure EMAS instead.


3.  Pour the EM diluted solution  or EMAS gradually onto the bokashi mixture while checking the moisture content. Mix well. The moisture content should be 30-40%.
4.  To check the proper moisture, squeeze the bokashi until it forms into a ball and with a slight push of a finger it will simply crumble. When you squeeze it and it doesn’t form a ball add more liquid and mix it well.

5. Put mixture inside the plastic drum or plastic bag that do not permit entry of air then tightly seal it. Store the container on shaded area without direct sunlight. Let it ferment for 14 days.


6. After 14 days, EM bokashi is ready to use when it has sweet-sour fermented smell. When it smells rotten it means that the fermentation process is unsuccessful.

White molds may appear if bokashi is exposed to air, thus anaerobic condition should be maintain. Although this molds are harmless but this will gradually lead to quality deterioration and finally putrefaction. 

(If fermentation failed, dig a hole and burry the bokashi. Before covering the hole dilute 1 L EMAS to 50 liters water and spray it to bokashi. After 1 to 2 months, when bokashi already turn into soil, it is now ready to be planted.)

7. After 14 days spread thin layer of bokashi on concrete floor let it air dry on shaded area for 3 sunny days.
Put the dried bokashi in a bag then seal it to maintain anaerobic condition. Store it in room temperature, away from direct sunlight. It can be stored for 1 year.




AEROBIC BOKASHI


1. Mix all the dried materials well.



2. Dilute 1 liter of molasses to non- chlorinated water and add EM-1. Mix well or use Pure EMAS instead.



3. Pour the EM diluted solution or EMAS gradually onto the bokashi mixture while checking the moisture content. Mix well. The moisture content should be 30-40%.

4. To check the proper moisture, squeeze the bokashi until it forms into a ball and with a slight push of a finger it will simply crumble. When you squeeze it and it doesn’t form a ball add more liquid and mix it well.

5.Heap the mixture on dry floor. Cover it with gunny bag or jute sack and keep in shaded area. Always avoid direct sunlight. The temperature of the mixture should be lower than 50oC thus regular checking is recommended. Mix the pile twice a week or every other day to add aeration and to keep the temperature below 50oC .  30% moisture content should be maintain during fermentation process. If the moisture drop below 30%, spray EM Solution or EMAS again.


7. After 7 days spread thin layer of bokashi on concrete floor let it air dry on shaded area for 3 sunny days.
Put the dried bokashi in a bag then seal it. Store it in room temperature, away from direct sunlight. Aerobic bokashi can be store for 6 months.

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